A simple method for assessing a person’s basic cognitive function. Developed and introduced in 1975 by three psychiatrists at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (Marshal F. Folstein, M.D.; Susan E. Folstein, M.D.; and Paul R. McHugh, M.D.), the MMSE has become a standard clinical assessment tool. It consists of 11 items that a clinician administers in five to 20 minutes, although there is no time limit for completing the assessment. The items assess a person’s orientation to time and place, memory, and abilities to maintain attention, follow verbal and written instructions, repeat sequences, write a sentence, and copy a drawing. Scoring accommodates the person’s level of education and age.
Psychological Assessment Resources (PAR), Inc., produces and markets the MMSE in written and software versions. Only qualified health care professionals can purchase the MMSE. For further information contact
Psychological Assessment Resources (PAR), Inc.
16204 N. Florida Avenue
Lutz, FL 33549
(800) 331-8378 or (813) 968-3003
An insurance plan to cover some of the expenses of residence and services in a long-term care facility. Some plans also pay for services provided in a person’s home. There are many variations on the terms of coverage, including the services that are covered or excluded, deductibles and copayments (out-of-pocket expenses), “trigger events,” length of coverage, and number of events the plan allows. It is essential to know these details before purchasing a long-term care insurance plan. In many cases, it is not possible to get long-term care insurance after a condition such as Parkinson’s is diagnosed, and a plan may exclude services related to any medical conditions existing at the time the plan is purchased. Many companies offer long-term care insurance plans among their employee benefit programs. It is important to determine whether there is a conversion option to maintain the plan if employment ends and whether conversion requires qualifying for coverage.
Most long-term care insurance plans are designed to pay what the industry calls a daily benefit allowance. Typically this is a flat amount, although some plans cover a percentage of the facility’s actual charges. The plan may cover a certain number of days or specify a fixed total payout. What the plan pays also may be related to other resources, paying against remaining balances. Decisions regarding long-term care insurance, as in other financial planning matters, should take into account the person’s entire financial picture. As well, it often is valuable to consult an independent insurance agent who has no vested interest in a particular company or plan to compare benefits, costs, limitations, and requirements of long-term care insurance plans, taking into consideration the person’s specific needs and circumstances. Medicare and most private medical insurance policies have no benefits for long-term care.
The world leader of the Roman Catholic Church whose Parkinson’s disease became apparent in the 1990s. Although official comment about his health status is limited, the pope illustrates the tremors, bradykinEsia, and soft, faltering speech characteristic of Parkinson’s disease. The pope’s insistence on maintaining an intense schedule of public appearances despite his health challenges has been inspiring to millions of people around the world who have Parkinson’s disease.